QURBA-JOOGTA SOOMAALI-AJNABIGA AH IYO SAAMAYNTOODA SIYAASADEED

Kontonkii sano ee la soo dhaafay, waxaa dunida aad ugu soo kordhay dadka heysta labo dhalasho iyo ka badan iyadoo loo aanaynayo sababo badan oo ay ugu muhiimsan yihiin colaadaha iyo dhaqaala xumida ka jira qeybo badan oo dunida ka mid ah sida Afrika. Tusaale, waddankeena markii ay dawladda burburtay dagaallada sookeeyane ay ka qarxeen meel walba oo waddanka ka mid ah, waxaa daafaha caalamka u hayaamay dad badan oo soomaaliyeed ayagoo raadinaya nolol iyo nabad, in badan oo dadkaas ka mid ahna waxay qaateen dhalashada waddamadii ay tageen. In kasta oo aan la isku raacsanayn dadka haysta labada dhalasho waxaa loo yaqaan “qurba-joog”. Hase yeeshee magac bixintaas waa mid guud oo aan kala saarayn kuwa qaatay dhalasho labaad oo ajnabi ah iyo kuwa ujeeddada gaaban ugu nool qurbaha sida ardayda, ganacsatada, qaxootiga aan dhalasho kale qaadan iyo kuwa lamidka ah. Sidaa darted, waxaan soo jeedinayaa in eray-bixintaas lagu kabo eray-bixin cusub oo ah “Soomaali-Ajnabi” una gaar ah qurba-joogta soomaaliyeed ee qaatay heystane dhalashada wadamo kale.
Anigoo qiraya in soddonkii sano ee lasoo dhaafay ay qurba-joogta soomaliyeed laf-dhabar u ahaayeen badbaadinta ummadda soomaaliyeed xag dhaqaale, waxbarasho, caafimaad iyo adeegyada kalaba, hadane dood badan ayaa ka jirta saamaynta ka qayb qaadashadooda siyaasadda iyo qabashadooda xilalka sarsare ee dowladda sida madaxweynaha, wasiirka koobaad, wasiirrada, golayaasha sharci-dejinta, madaxda hey’addaha garsoorka, taliyeyaasha ciidamada iyo qaybaha kala gadisan ee hay’adaha dawladda. Waxaa xusid mudan in doodda nuucan ah aysan ku koobnayn soomaaliya oo kaliya oo ay ka jirto caalamka oo idil. Hadaba, waxaan isku dayayaa inaan qormadaan si miisaaman oo kooban ugu soo bandhigo faa’iidooyinka iyo khatarta ka dhalan kara ka qeyb qaadashada qurba-joogta ee siyaasadda iyo waliba wixi aan xalka u arko.

#Faa’iidooyinka
Faa’iidooyinka qurba-joogtu u leeyihiin waddamadii ay ka yimaadeen waa badanyhiin, waxaanse ku soo koobayaa labo arrimood oo dhismaha dawladnimada iyo horumarka muhiim u ah:
1. Qurba-joogtu waxay muhiim u yihiin dhismaha dawladnimada. Si hay’adihii dawladda dib loogu dhiso, waxaa loo baahan yahy dad soomaaliyeed oo aqoon, khibrad iyo tayaba leh. In badan oo qurba-joogta ka mid ah waa dad wax bartay, sidoo kalane haaya aragtiyo xagga dhismaha dawladnimada maadaama ay ku noolyihiin waddamo horumarsan. Dadkii khibradaha lahaa ee ka shaqeyn jiray dawladdeennii hore waxay u qaybsameen wax dhintay, wax gaboobay iyo wax waddanka ka tagay, sidaas awgeed waxaa lagama maarmaan ah in dadka soomaliyeed ee qurbaha jooga ay ka qeyb qaataan dhismaha dawladnimadda, gaar ahaan kuwooda aqoonta iyo tayada leh. Arrinta ka qeybgilinta qorba-joogta dhismaha dawladnimada waxay u bahaan tahay labo arimood. Arrinta koobaad oo ah in aan cid kasta oo laba eray oo af-ingiriis jajab ah soo tuuri karta aan la iska aaminin ee la hubiyo aqoonta iyo khibradaha ay sheeganayaan inay leeyihiin. Arrinta labaad waa in si fiican looga taxadiro afkaarta dawlad dhisidda ee ay soo jeedinayaan, waayo mararka qaar waxaa laga yaabaa in aysan ku habboonayn waddankeenna marka la fiiriyo duruufihiisa iyo dhaqankiisa gaarka ah.
2. Qurba-joogtu waxay laf-dhabar u yihiin kobcinta dhaqaalaha oo dhismaha dawladnimada muhiim u ah. Si dawlad loo dhiso waxaa loo baahan yahay dhaqaale. Qurba-joogtu waxay waddanka keeni karaan fikrado ganacsi oo hor leh, waxayna saameyn karaan maalgashi iyo shaqo-abuur. Haddii aad fiiriso dadka wada dhaqdhaqaaqa ganacsi ee maanta ka jira waddankeenna waxaad fahmi kartaa muhiimadda qurba-joogta ee xagga dhaqaalaha. Si loo sii kobciyo dawrka qurba-joogta ee xagga dhaqaalaha waa in dawladdu sameysaa laba arrimood; tan koowaad oo ah in dawladdu samayso hay’ad gaar ah oo ka shaqeysa dhiirragalinta maalgashiga qurba-joogta iyo arrinta labaad oo ah in dawladdu dadajiso dhismaha kaabayaasha dhaqaalaha oo muhiim u ah habsami u socodka ganacsiga sida sharciyada maalgashiga iyo gancsiga, waddooyinka, korontada, suuqyada, dekadaha, ilaalinta tayada iyo fududaynta suuqyada caalamka iyo wixii lamid ah.

#Khatarta
Inkastoo ay khatartu badan tahay hadane waxaan ku soo koobayaa afar arrimood:
1. Khatarta ka dhalan karta lahaanshaha labo dhalaso waa daacadnimo qaybsan (divided loyalty) iyo dano is diidan (conflicting interests). Dawladaha maanta caalamka ka jira waxay kala leeyhiin dano dhaqaale iyo kuwa siyaasadeed, danaha siyaasadeed ayayna dawladuhu u adeegsadaan dalwadaha kale si ay uga gaaraan danahooda dhaqaale. Badanaa danahaasi waa kuwa is diiddan oo iska hor-imaanaya (conflicting interests). Tusaale, waxaad arkaysaa dawlad adeegsaneyso dhaqaale si ay qof gaar ah uga dhigto madax waddan kale si ay waddankaas uga gaarto dano dhaqaale oo ay leedahay sida ka faa’iidaysiga khayraadka waddankaasi leeyahay. Hadaba su’aasha muhiimka ah waxaa waaye marka qof labo dhalasho haysto uu waddan (x) ka noqdo madaxweyne, raysul wasaare, afhayeenka golaha sharci-dejinta, taliye ciidan iyo wixi lamid ah isla markaan ay is diiddan yhiin danaha labadiisa dawladood (conflicting national interests), qofkaas madaxda ah ee labada dhalsho wato labada dawladood middee la safanayaa amaba daacad u noqonayaa? Ma dawladdii uu dhalashadeeda qaatay caruurtiisune ku nool yihiin marka uu xilka ka dagana uu ku noqon doonaa mase dawladdii uu asal ahaan ka soo jeeday ee uu hubo asaga iyo caruurtiisuba inaysan ku noolaan doonin kadib marka uu xilka ka dego? Ma hubo inuu qofkaas daacad u noqon doono dawladdii uu asal ahaan ka soo jeeday, laakin waxaa hubaal ah in ugu yaraan qofka nuucaas ah daacadnimadiisu qaybsan tahay (his or her loyalty is divided) marka laga soo tago midda uu labada dawladood afka kala jiri doono iyo midda uu si hoose ula shaqayn doono. Hadaba dunidaan wax walaba ku xiran yihiin dano dhaqaale iyo mid siyaasadeed, in qof la hubo in daacadnimadiisu qaybsan tahay uu madax ka naqdo waddan waa halis aan loo dulqaadan karin oo ay tahay in ummaddu ku baraarugto. Waxayse arrintaas sii qatar badan tahay marka waddan dawladnimaddiisu jilicsan tahay ay xilalka sarsare ay qabtaan dad la hubo in daacadnimadoodu qeybsan tahay. Sidoo kale, khatartaan waxay sii kordhaysaa marka dadka madaxda ka ah waddanka ay haystaan dhalashada waddamo la ogyahay inay kasoo horjeedaan jiritaanka waddanka, faragalin toos ahne ku haayaan.
2. Waxaa qatar ah in dawladda qofka madaxda ah dhalashada ka haysto ay si xad dhaaf ah u cadaadiso qofkaas ayadoo ka faa’iideysanaysa qaybsanaanta daacadnimadiisa iyo danaha uu ku leeyahay waddanka uu dhalashada ka heysto si uu danaheeda dhaqaale iyo siyaasaddeedba ugu fuliyo. Arrintaan waxa ay sii qatar badan tahay marka waddanka qofka nuucaan ahi madaxda ka yahay ay hay’adihiisa dabagalka, garsoorka iyo la xisaabtanku ay jilacsan yihiin amaba aysan jirin sida waddankeenna. Sidoo kale, halistaan way sii kordhaysaa mar kasta oo madaxda nuucaan ahi ay badato waayo waxay qaadan karaan go’aanno halis ku ah jiritaanka iyo hurumarka waddanka ayagoo ilaalinaya danaha waddamada ay dhalashada ka haystaan. Tusaalaha ugu yar waxa uu noqon karaa shuruucda waddanka qofka waddan kale madax ka ahi dhalashada ka haysto inay diiddan yihiin arrimo dani ugu jirto waddankaas sida xukunka dilka ah (death penalty) sidaa darteedne qofka lagu cadaadiyo inuu u hoggaansamo shuruucda waddanka uu dhalashada ka haysto.
3. Daacadnimada qaybsan iyo cadaadiska kaga imaanayo dawladda uu qofku dhalashada ka haysto waxay keeni karaan in madaxda waddanku daacad u noqdaan, addeecaanne wadamo shisheeye (foreign allegiance) sida wadamada ay ka haystaan dhalasho amaba shaqsiyaadkaas ay dano kale ka leeyihiin beddelka halkii la rabay inay daacad u noqdaan, ilaaliyaanna danaha waddanka ay asal ahaan ka soo jeedaan madaxdana ka yihiin. Tusaale, sharciyada waddamada qaar sida Mareykanka marka ay qeexayaan yaa muwaaddin ah waxay si cad u sheegayaan shardiga ah in muwaaddinku si joogta ah daacad ugu noqdo amaba u addeeco waddanka (permanent allegiance to the country). Tani waa qatar aad u sarrayso oo ku wajahan ummad walba oo oggolaato dadka labada dhalasho haysta inay xilalka sarsare ee waddanka qabtaan. Maxaad u malaynaysaa saamaynta arrinta haysashada labo dhalaso yeelan karto haddii waddan (X) ku hantiyay daacadnimada madaxda waddan kale kaliya dhaqaalihii uu waddan (X) ku bixiyay doorashadii madaxda waddanka kale? Hubaal qatarta in sidaan wax u dhici karaan waa wax aad loo filan karo, laakin micnaheedo ma aha in mar walba sidaan wax u dhacaan, gaar ahaan marka uu waddanku leeyahay hay’adda qaran oo la hubo daacadnimadooda oo dusha kala socda tallaab walba oo qaldan oo madaxda nuucaan ah qaadi karaan. Filashada seddexdaan arrimood ee ka dhalan karta madaxda haysata labada dhalasho waa sii kordhaysaa gaar ahaan marka hay’addihii dawladda ee halistaan xakamayn lahaa ay jilcan yihiin amaba aysan jirin.
4. Seddexda arrimood ee aan kor kusoo xusnay waxay horseedi karaan in qofku waddanka ka galo khiyaano qaran. Qatarta filashada dhicitaanka khiyaano qaran waa sii kordhaysaa marka hay’adihii dawladda ee si feejigan ula socon lahaa arrimahaan ay jilacsan yihiin amaba aysan jirin sida waddankeenna.

#Xalka
Inta aanan u guda galin xalka waddankeenna, aan ku hormaro sida waddamada kale arrinta labada dhalasho u maareeyeen? Wadamada qaar si cad eyay ugu sheegeen shuruucdooda iyo dastuurradooda in qof laba dhalaso haysto madax ka noqon karin wadammadooda sida Yukrayn. Wadammada qaarne in kasta oo shuruucdooda aysan si cad ugu qeexin hadane waxaa aad u xoog badan cadaadiska dadweynaha iyo hay’adaha sida warbaahinta oo dalbanaya in qofka u tartamaya xil sare uu ka tanaasulo dhalashada wadammada kale ee uu heysto. Tusaale, Ted Cruz markii uu u tartamay madaxweynenimmada Mareykanka, waxa uu si cad uga tanaasulay dhalashadiisii Kanada si uu u caddeeyo in daacadnimadiisu qaybsaneyn. Sidoo kale, Michele Bachmann oo ah xildhibaanad hore oo ka tirsaneyd aqalka koongareyska Marekan ayaa ka tanaasushay dhalashadeedii kale ay xaq u laheyd. Ogowna labadaan qofood midkoodne uma dhaaran mana adeegsan dhalashadooda waddamada kale in kasta oo ay xaq u lahaayeen. Soomaalidu waxay ku maahmaahdaa sidee xeero lagu xagtaa ilkane ku nadad galaan? Sidaan hore u soo sheegay dadka soomaliyeed ee labada dhalasho heysta dhismaha dawladnimadeena muhiim ayay u yihiin, laakin si halista ka imaan karta loo yareeyo waxaan soo jeedinayaa seddexdaan arrimood:
1. In qofkii rabo in uu u tartamo amaba loo magacaabo xilalka sarsare iyo kuwa muhiimka u ah ilaalinta danaha qaranka uu caddeeyo haddii uu laba dhalasha haysto si cadne u sheego inuu ka tanaasulay dhalashada uu ka heysto wadammada kale, loona oggolaado tartanka kadib marka si fiican loo hubiyo arrintaas.
2. Qofkii diida inuu ka tanaasulo dhalashada uu ka haysto waddan kale, waa in aan loo oggolaan inuu u tartamo qabtane xilalka sarsare.
3. In arrintaan si cad loogu sheego dastuurka iyo shuruucda dalka ee khuseeya doorashooyinka iyo magacaabista xilalka sarsare iyo kuwa muhiimka u ah ilaalinta danaha qaranka.

W/Q: Cabdirashiid Cali Caadle
Dersa -PhD- Maamulka iyo Istaraatiijayada Jaamacadda Ankara Yildirim BeyazitAnkara, Turkiga

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